Showing posts with label spatial learning. Show all posts
Showing posts with label spatial learning. Show all posts

Tuesday, 21 May 2013

Non-Visual Geographies

Jacobson, R.D. (2010) Non-Visual Geographies In: Warf, B. (ed.) Encyclopedia of Geography, Sage: London.

Abstract

The construction, interpretation, and meaning of non-visual landscapes explores the role of sensory and perceptual modes other than vision in the construction of geographic space. It positions itself at the boundary between social theory and behavioral geography by examining the ways in which non-visual modes of information acquisition and processing reflect geographic environments and in turn shape those same places by structuring the subjective understanding and behavior of people and their symbolic understanding of space.  This understanding and representation of geographic space, occurs from several diverse conceptual perspectives, including behavioral geography and post-structuralism. At the individual level we gather
information in an environment, from all our senses other than vision: including hearing, smell, taste, and touch including kinesthesia (muscle memory). Our spatial behaviour is informed by these other sense modalities facilitating an understanding of space and place.  



Tactile maps

Jacobson, R.D. (2010) Tactile maps, In: Goldstein, B. (ed) Encyclopedia of Perception, pp.950-952. Sage: London

Abstract

Extracting meaningful information from a tactile map, that is a map elevated in the third dimension, designed to be read by the sense of touch, is far more problematic than reading a conventional map with the use of vision.  Tactile maps are widely used in educational settings and in orientation and mobility training for vision impaired individuals. Maps and graphics are the most fundamental and primary mechanism for communicating spatial arrangements to blind people that is any representation of spatial features their arrangement and intra relationships.  Tactile graphics are used as diagrams in school text books, and portable maps when traveling. Just as Braille is often used as a substitute for the written word, tactile graphics are the equivalent for maps and diagrams. These are an essential tool for providing independence and education to people without vision.

Thursday, 16 May 2013

Cognitive mapping without sight: Four preliminary studies of spatial learning

Jacobson, R.D. (1998) Cognitive mapping without sight: Four preliminary studies of spatial learning. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 18, 289-305.

Abstract

This paper illustrates the application of cognitive mapping to people with visual impairments and blindness. It gives perspectives on past research, outlines ongoing  research, highlights some of the methodological and validity issues arising from this research, and discusses the movement of theory into practice. The findings of three small preliminary studies have been reported, as part of continuing research into the cognitive mapping abilities of blind or visually impaired people. These studies have highlighted the need to use multiple, mutually supportive tests to assess cognitive map knowledge. In light of these findings and the need to move theory into practice, a current research project is outlined. This project seeks to use the knowledge gained from the three projects to design and implement an auditory hyper map system to aid wayfinding and the spatial learning of an area. Finally an agenda for applied research is presented.

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GIS and people with visual impairments or blindness: Exploring the potential for education, orientation, and navigation

Jacobson, R.D. and Kitchin, R.M (1997) GIS and people with visual impairments or blindness: Exploring the potential for education, orientation, and navigation. Transactions in Geographic Information System, 2(4), 315-332.

Abstract

 GIS, with their predominantly visual communication of spatial information, may appear to have little to offer people with visual impairments or blindness. However, because GIS store and manage the spatial relations between objects, alternative, nonvisual ways to communicate this information can be utilized. As such, modified GIS could provide people with visual impairments access to detailed spatial information that would aid spatial learning, orientation, and spatial choice and decision making. In this paper, we explore the ways that GIS have been, and might be, adapted for use by people with visual impairments or blindness. We review current developments, report upon a small experimental study that compares the ability of GIS-based and various adaptive technologies to communicate spatial information using non-visual media, and provide an agenda for future research. We argue that adapted GIS hold much promise for implicitly improving the quality of life for visually impaired people by increasing mobility and independence.

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