Showing posts with label routes. Show all posts
Showing posts with label routes. Show all posts

Thursday, 16 May 2013

Wayfinding by people with visual impairments: The effect of spatial tasks on the ability to learn a novel route

Blades, M., Lippa, Y., Golledge, R.G., Jacobson, R.D., and Kitchin, R.M. (2002) Wayfinding by people with visual impairments: The effect of spatial tasks on the ability to learn a novel route. Journal of Visual Impairment and Blindness, 96, 407-419.

Abstract

Thirty-eight people with visual impairments learned a 483-meter novel route through a University campus which included 28 choice point (e.g. left or right turns). After a single guided experience of the route participants were divided into four groups and walked the route three times under different conditions. In the verbalization condition participants gave a verbal description of the route from memory after each route experience. In the modeling condition participants made a model of the route from memory after each route
experience. In the pointing condition participants made pointing estimates between places on the route as they walked along it. In the control condition participants walked the route without any additional testing. Performance was measured in terms of accurate decisions at choice points. All four groups showed an improvement in performance with greater experience of the route. The modeling group showed the greatest improvement compared to the control group. The methodological implications of these results are considered, and the implications for mobility training are discussed.  

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Rapid development of cognitive maps in people with visual impairments when exploring novel geographic spaces

Jacobson, R.D., Lippa, Y., Golledge, R.G., Kitchin, R.M., and Blades, M. (2001) Rapid development of cognitive maps in people with visual impairments when exploring novel geographic spaces. IAPS Bulletin of People-Environment Studies (Special Issue on Environmental Cognition), 18, 3-6.

Abstract

'Cognitive' map is a term that refers to a person's environmental knowledge. Anyone experiencing a new environment will, over time, develop a cognitive representation of that environment, including information derived from that environment (e.g., about places, routes and spatial relationships) and information about personal experiences (e.g. memories about events at locations and attitudes towards places). There is now a great deal of research into the cognitive maps of sighted people (see Golledge, 1999;  Kitchin
& Freundschuh, 2000;  Kitchin & Blades, in press), but there is comparatively little research into the cognitive maps of people with visual impairments.

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Cognitive maps, spatial abilities, and human wayfinding

Golledge, R.G., Jacobson, R.D., Kitchin, R.M., and Blades, M. (2000) Cognitive maps, spatial abilities, and human wayfinding. Geographical Review of Japan, ser. B: The English journal of the Association of Japanese Geographers, 73 (Ser.B) (2), 93-104.

Abstract

In a series of experiments in Belfast (Northern Ireland) and Santa Barbara (California) we used 10 sighted, 10 visually impaired, and 10 blind individuals matched for age, socio-economic status, and educational background to examine wayfinding. The participants were first required to take the experimenter over a familiar route to observe the types of behavior they exhibited. This established a performance base and provided a training exercise as participants undertook the set of tasks to be performed in the unfamiliar environment. Table 2 shows the aggregate results from participants' familiar environments.  They were then required to learn a new route in completely unfamiliar environments.  To do this the participants were given 4 trials - the first was an experimenter-guided trial and the next 3 were learning and evaluation trials.

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Wednesday, 15 May 2013

Talking tactile maps and environmental audio beacons: An orientation and mobility development tool for visually impaired people

Jacobson, R.D. (1996) Talking tactile maps and environmental audio beacons: An orientation and mobility development tool for visually impaired people, Proceedings of the ICA Commission on maps and graphics for blind and visually impaired people, 21-25 October, 1996, Ljubjiana, Slovenia.

Abstract

Pedestrian navigation through the built environment is a fundamental human activity. Environmental scales may range from the micro, the room of a house, to the macro, a cityscape, for example. In order to navigate effectively through this range of environments visually impaired people need to develop orientation and mobility skills. Auditory beacons, accessed in a model as a talking tactile map and in the environment by beacons which transmit audio messages to a small receiver carried by the pedestrian, serve to integrate the model representation and the environment, and act as mobility and orientation development tool. This technical approach is assessed using a multi-task analysis of the cognitive maps of people using the system when learning a new route. Although analysis was not conclusive, those who used the system expressed great interest, suggesting that both maps and audio complimented and enhanced each other. This study demonstrates that access to audio beacons in environment and model leads to increased spatial comprehension and confidence about the route and shows the need for a mixture of quantitative and qualitative approaches when assessing cognitive mapping ability.

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