Showing posts with label qualitative. Show all posts
Showing posts with label qualitative. Show all posts

Tuesday, 21 May 2013

Naturalistic Testing

Jacobson, R.D.  (2009) Naturalistic Testing, In: In: Kitchin, R., Thrift, N (eds.) International Encyclopedia of Human Geography, Volume 7, pp. 269-274. Oxford: Elsevier.

Abstract

Naturalistic inquiry or testing aims to leverage the benefits of conducting research in a natural setting in order to provide a rigorous contextual evaluation of the problem or phenomena under research scrutiny. It therefore is a predominantly qualitative research methodology. This is in contrast with controlled experiment inquiry in which the researcher manipulates the independent variables with some explicit control over other factors in order to observe the effects on the dependent variables.



Thursday, 16 May 2013

Belfast without sight: Exploring geographies of blindness

Kitchin, R.M., Jacobson, R.D., Golledge, R.G., and Blades, M. (1998) Belfast without sight: Exploring geographies of blindness. Irish Geographer. 31(1), 34-46.

Abstract

In this paper the transformed spaces of visually impaired and blind people is explored through a detailed analysis of interview transcripts with twenty seven visually impaired people living in or around Belfast.  Data were collected using a structured open-ended interview and were analysed within NUD-IST, a qualitative data analysis package. Analysis revealed that visually impaired people become spatially confused (e.g. lost or disorientated) for two primary reasons.  ‘Self-produced’ confusion is spatial confusion caused by the misperception / miscognition of a route (e.g. miscounting intersections). ‘Situational’ confusion is spatial confusion caused by a permanent or temporary localised occurrences such as road works, vehicles parked on pavements, and street furniture.  Both types of spatial confusion were found to induce feelings of fear and anxiety, leading to a loss of self-confidence, embarrassment and frustration, which in turn led to less independent travel and exploration, and constrained patterns of spatial behaviour.  Respondents detailed a number of strategies for coping with spatial confusion.  In addition, they assessed methods to make Belfast more navigable including environmental modifications and orientation and mobility aids.

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Wednesday, 15 May 2013

Talking tactile maps and environmental audio beacons: An orientation and mobility development tool for visually impaired people

Jacobson, R.D. (1996) Talking tactile maps and environmental audio beacons: An orientation and mobility development tool for visually impaired people, Proceedings of the ICA Commission on maps and graphics for blind and visually impaired people, 21-25 October, 1996, Ljubjiana, Slovenia.

Abstract

Pedestrian navigation through the built environment is a fundamental human activity. Environmental scales may range from the micro, the room of a house, to the macro, a cityscape, for example. In order to navigate effectively through this range of environments visually impaired people need to develop orientation and mobility skills. Auditory beacons, accessed in a model as a talking tactile map and in the environment by beacons which transmit audio messages to a small receiver carried by the pedestrian, serve to integrate the model representation and the environment, and act as mobility and orientation development tool. This technical approach is assessed using a multi-task analysis of the cognitive maps of people using the system when learning a new route. Although analysis was not conclusive, those who used the system expressed great interest, suggesting that both maps and audio complimented and enhanced each other. This study demonstrates that access to audio beacons in environment and model leads to increased spatial comprehension and confidence about the route and shows the need for a mixture of quantitative and qualitative approaches when assessing cognitive mapping ability.

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Assessing the configurational knowledge of people with visual impairments or blindness

Jacobson, R.D. and Kitchin, R.M. (1995) Assessing the configurational knowledge of people with visual impairments or blindness, Swansea Geographer, 32, 14-24.

Abstract

One of the fundamental human needs is the need to know the world around us. and to be able to freely navigate within this environment. Visually impaired and blind individuals experience a different world from those that are sighted, and yet their spatial understanding of this world remains relatively unknown. Assessing their comprehension of the everyday geographic environment can be undertaken using a variety of data collection and analysis techniques. from the simple (e.g.sketch mapping) to the complex (e.g. multidimensional scaling). This paper examines the various methods designed to collect and analyse the configurational knowledge of sighted individuals and assesses their applicability to collecting the configurational knowledge of people with visual impairments or blindness. A small study, utilizing quantitative and qualitative techniques, is used to investigate the utility of various tests in assessing the contigurational knowledge of one blind person and two visually impaired people from Aberystwyth, Wales, UK.

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