Jacobson, R.D. and Kitchin, R.M (1997) GIS and people with visual impairments or blindness: Exploring the potential for education, orientation, and navigation. Transactions in Geographic Information System, 2(4), 315-332.
GIS, with their predominantly visual communication of spatial information, may
appear to have little to offer people with visual impairments or blindness. However,
because GIS store and manage the spatial relations between objects, alternative, nonvisual
ways to communicate this information can be utilized. As such, modified GIS
could provide people with visual impairments access to detailed spatial information
that would aid spatial learning, orientation, and spatial choice and decision making.
In this paper, we explore the ways that GIS have been, and might be, adapted for use
by people with visual impairments or blindness. We review current developments,
report upon a small experimental study that compares the ability of GIS-based and
various adaptive technologies to communicate spatial information using non-visual
media, and provide an agenda for future research. We argue that adapted GIS hold
much promise for implicitly improving the quality of life for visually impaired
people by increasing mobility and independence.