Showing posts with label mining. Show all posts
Showing posts with label mining. Show all posts

Tuesday, 21 May 2013

Book Publication: Mining and Natural Hazard Vulnerability in the Philippines: Digging to development or digging to disaster?



 

Back Cover Information
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 "This text provides an exhaustive and engaging review of the literature surrounding issues of development in the Philippines. Holden and Jacobson leave no stone unturned as they uncover some of the most detrimental effects of modern mining practices on the surrounding natural environment and human communities."
- Professor Kathleen Nadeau, California State University, San Bernardino
 
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"This book speaks well of mining disasters that are accelerated and amplified by natural hazards in the Philippines such as typhoons, earthquakes and volcanic eruptions. I recommend this superb work to the general public and readers of specific interest on mining especially those with similar situations in their own countries."
Dr Emelina Regis, Director of the Institute for Environmental Conservation
and Research, Ateneo de Naga University

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"Empirically grounded and theoretically informed, Holden and Jacobsen provide a compelling and powerful study of the hazards of neoliberalism and of environmental politics more broadly." — Dr James Tyner, Professor of Geography, Kent State University

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The archipelago of the Philippines is well endowed with nonferrous mineral resources, and in recent years the Filipino government, acting under the influence of the dominant and seemingly ubiquitous neoliberal development paradigm, has liberalized its mining laws in order to accelerate economic development. Yet the Philippines is also a country highly prone to a variety of natural hazards - including earthquakes, volcanoes, tsunamis, typhoons and El  Nino-induced droughts - that have the ability to interact adversely with mining's potential for environmental degradation. Thus, there are great dangers inherent in pursuing such a development paradigm: earthquakes can destabilize tailings storage facilities, typhoons can  flood tailings ponds, and mine-pit dewatering can enhance the competition for groundwater resources during droughts. This study explores how these hazards amplify the environmental harm prevalent in mining, and reveals the substantial threat they pose to the livelihoods of the archipelago's poor - who are dependent upon subsistence agriculture and subsistence aquaculture - as well as the inadequacies of the institutions designed to protect their environment.
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Ecclesial Opposition to Nonferrous Metals Mining in Guatemala and the Philippines: Neoliberalism Encounters the Church of the Poor

Holden, W. N. and Jacobson, R.D. (2011) Ecclesial Opposition to Nonferrous Metals Mining in Guatemala and the Philippines: Neoliberalism Encounters the Church of the Poor. In Brunn S. (ed.) Engineering Earth, Volume 3 pp 383-411, Springer Netherlands.

Abstract

In recent years, as a result of the prevailing neoliberal development paradigm and the influence of the World Bank, many countries in the developing world have liberalized their mining laws to attract investment into their economies. In both Guatemala and the Philippines, governments have revised mining laws in an attempt to encourage more investment. This chapter discusses the opposition of the Roman Catholic Church to the neoliberal policies enacted by the governments of those countries to encourage the extraction of nonferrous metals by multinational corporations. The chapter begins with a discussion of the countries’ mineral
resources (and efforts of the respective governments to encourage mining), and then discusses the ecclesial opposition to mining in the two countries; the chapter concludes with a discussion of how neoliberalism is encountering the church of the poor. This research finds its home within the discipline of geography, as one of
human geography’s core areas is the relationship between people and their environment, and conflicts about mining are conflicts about different understandings of human-nature relationships.


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Exemplifying Accumulation By Dispossession: Mining And Indigenous Peoples In The Philippines.

Holden, W., Nadeau, K., and Jacobson, R.D.  (2011) Exemplifying Accumulation By Dispossession: Mining And Indigenous Peoples In The Philippines. Geografiska Annaler: Series B, Human Geography 93 (2), 141-161.

Abstract

 Using a case study from the Philippines, this article applies David Harvey’s theory of accumulation by dispossession to show how neoliberal policies enable mining corporations to locate, lay claim to, and develop mineral resources in formerly inccessible areas, which for centuries have provided safe haven for indigenous peoples and their cultures. It explains why these factors are leading to an increase in armed conflict between military forces and guerrilla groups, which recruit their members from displaced indigenous people. The article concludes that the theory of accumulation by dispossession offers an appropriate analytical tool for understanding these processes.

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Ecclesial Opposition to Nonferrous Mining in Guatemala

Holden, W.N. and Jacobson, R.D. (2009) Ecclesial Opposition to Nonferrous Mining in Guatemala” Neoliberalism Meets the Church of the Poor in a Shattered Society. The Canadian Geographer / Le G´eographe canadien, 53 (2), 145-164.

Abstract

Guatemala, a nation plagued by the legacy of its brutal 36-year civil war, has, in recent years liberalized its mining law to encourage the entry of multinational mining corporations. These mining companies have included two Canadian companies, which have developed the two most prominent, and controversial, mining projects in Guatemala. Using the lens of political ecology to demonstrate how environmental analysis and policy can be reframed towards addressing the problems of the socially vulnerable, this article analyses the opposition of the Roman Catholic Church to mining in Guatemala. The article reviews the development of liberation theology in Latin America and how this has imparted empathy for the poor into the pastoral praxis of the church.The church is opposed to mining largely because of the potential implications of mining’s environmental effects upon the livelihoods of the poor. The article postulates that the opposition of the church to mining is an example of an environmental issue connecting groups of people across class and ethnic lines to offset powerful global political and economic forces. The article concludes with a discussion of how this opposition to mining is a demonstration of the  opposition of the progressive church to neoliberalism in general.


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Civil Society Opposition to Nonferrous Metals Mining in Guatemala

Holden, W.N. and Jacobson, R.D. (2008). “Civil Society Opposition to Nonferrous Metals Mining in Guatemala.” Voluntas: International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations, 19 (4): 325-350. 

Abstract

Drawing on a range of fieldwork interviews, this paper discusses the opposition of civil society to nonferrous metals mining in Guatemala. Guatemala’s mineral resources, and government efforts to encourage their extraction, are discussed, as is the emergent civil society of that nation. Guatemalan civil society has opposed mining due to the impacts of its environmental effects upon the poor engaged in subsistence agriculture. This opposition has involved protests, community consultations against mining, and networking with the forces of global civil society. The paper concludes with a discussion of how this opposition to mining is a manifestation of the opposition to neoliberalism currently underway in Latin America. 


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Monday, 20 May 2013

Mining Amid Armed Conflict: Nonferrous Metals Mining in the Philippines

Holden, W. N. and Jacobson, R.D. (2007) Mining Amid Armed Conflict: Nonferrous Metals Mining in the Philippines, The Canadian Geographer / Le G´eographe canadien, 51(4), 475-500.

Abstract

In recent years the government of the Philippines has attempted to accelerate the growth of the nation’s economy by encouraging the extraction of its mineral resources by multinational corporations. The Philippines is also a nation beset by armed violence carried out by anti-state groups. This article discusses how the presence, and activities, of these groups generate problems for a mining-based development paradigm. The article examines: the literature on the topic of natural resource abundance and conflict, how there have been attacks upon mines by armed groups, how mining companies have served as a target of extortion, how grievances related to mining can act as a source of conflict, how mining could disrupt the peace process with the Moro Islamic Liberation Front and how mines are accompanied by a militarization of the area in their vicinity. Ultimately, violence is a manifestation of poverty and social exclusion inherent in Philippine society. Mining may not diminish, and indeed may increase, this poverty and social exclusion. Unless poverty and social exclusion is alleviated the violence will continue and alternative efforts to develop the Philippine economy will be precluded.

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Civil Society opposition to nonferrous metals mining in Montana

Holden, W. N., Jacobson, R.D, and Moran, K, (2007) Civil Society opposition to nonferrous metals mining in Montana, Voluntas: International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations, 18(3) 266-292.

Abstract

This paper discusses the opposition of civil society to nonferrous metals mining in Montana. The mineral resources and mining history of Montana are discussed, as is the vibrant civil society of that state. Montana’s civil society has opposed mining due to its environmental effects, particularly upon areas of high conservation value. This opposition has involved litigation and the implementation of a ban on the use of cyanide by the mining industry. The paper concludes with a discussion of whether this opposition to mining has damaged the economy of the state and Montana’s future as an example of the ‘‘New West,’’ wherein amenities
based growth act as the principal agent of economic activity.


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Sunday, 19 May 2013

Ecclesial Opposition to Mining on Mindanao: Neoliberalism Encounters the Church of the Poor in the Land of Promise

Holden, W. N. Jacobson, R.D. (2007) , Worldviews: Environment, Culture, Religion, 11(2), 155-202.
Abstract
  
In the developing world, environmental issues are often livelihood issues as the poor try to protect resources necessary for their subsistence. Th  is paper examines the opposition of the Roman Catholic Church, on the Island of Mindanao, to neoliberal policies designed by the Philippine government to encourage nonferrous metals mining by multinational corporations. Mining is an activity with substantial potential for environmental degradation that can deprive the poor of their livelihood. Th  e Church, demonstrating the influence of liberation theology and its preferential option for the poor, has taken a stance opposing mining as an activity that may harm the poor by degrading the environment upon which they depend for their livelihood and further impoverish them. Th  e paper examines the Church’s efforts to provide alternative development programs for the poor and discusses the potential for more conflict between neoliberalism, and its “top down”
methods of implementing policies, and liberation theology with its “bottom up” perspective on achieving development.

Saturday, 18 May 2013

Mining Amid Decentralization: Local Governments and Mining in the Philippines

Holden, W. N. and Jacobson, R.D (2006) Mining Amid Decentralization: Local Governments and Mining in the Philippines. Natural Resources Forum, 30, 188-198.
Abstract
In recent years, as part of its neoliberal development paradigm, the Government of the Philippines has engaged in efforts to encourage extraction of the nation’s mineral resources. The Philippines is also a country where decentralization has devolved substantial powers to local governments. Concern over potentially adverse environmental effects has led to opposition to mining by some local governments in the Philippines. This opposition has led to the withholding of consent to mining projects by local governments and, in some cases, the implementation of moratoriums banning mining. Central to this opposition have been the activities of civil society groups, and their collaboration with local governments. This collaboration has involved the drafting of legislation prohibiting mining and support of candidates for office who are opposed to mining. Collectively, Filipino local governments and civil society groups are examples of the concept of governance, a dispersed process wherein society manages itself for the betterment of all its members. For mining companies seeking to implement projects, it is no longer suffcient to have the consent of the national Government — that of local governance forces must also be considered.