Golledge, R.G., Rice, M., and Jacobson, R.D. (2005) A Commentary on the Use of Touch for Accessing On-Screen Spatial Representations: The Process of Experiencing Haptic Maps and Graphics. The Professional Geographer, 57 (3). 339-349.
The growth of the Internet and the digital revolution have meant increased reliance on electronic representations of information. Geospatial information has been readily adapted to the world of cyberspace, and most Web pages incorporate graphics, images, or maps to represent spatial and spatialized data. But ﬂat computer screens do not facilitate a map or graph experience by those who are visually impaired. The traditional method for compensating for nonvisual access to maps and graphics has been to construct hard-copy tactile maps. In this article, we examine an electronic accommodation for nonvisual users—the haptic map. Using new and off-the-shelf hardware—force feedback and vibrotactile mice—we explore how touch can be combined with virtual representations of shapes and patterns to enable nonvisual access to onscreen map or graphic material.
Key Words: digital representation, haptic maps, visual impairment