Showing posts with label environment. Show all posts
Showing posts with label environment. Show all posts

Sunday, 19 May 2013

Behavioral Geography

Jacobson, R. D. (2006) Behavioral Geography. In: Warf, B. (ed.) Encyclopedia of Human Geography. Sage: London. pp 17-18. Invited

Abstract
Behavioral geography investigates human action in geographic space as mediated through the cognitive processing of environmental information.  Its emphasis is upon spatial behavior and the psychology that lies beneath it at an individual level.  Behavioral geography deals with the environment defined by human behavior, with people central and integral to every problem. Its major focus has been upon the relations between a multi-dimensional environment and the multi-faceted process of human action, mediated through perception and cognition as active processes of learning about places, with the mind mediating between the environment and behavior in it. 


Wednesday, 15 May 2013

Talking tactile maps and environmental audio beacons: An orientation and mobility development tool for visually impaired people

Jacobson, R.D. (1996) Talking tactile maps and environmental audio beacons: An orientation and mobility development tool for visually impaired people, Proceedings of the ICA Commission on maps and graphics for blind and visually impaired people, 21-25 October, 1996, Ljubjiana, Slovenia.

Abstract

Pedestrian navigation through the built environment is a fundamental human activity. Environmental scales may range from the micro, the room of a house, to the macro, a cityscape, for example. In order to navigate effectively through this range of environments visually impaired people need to develop orientation and mobility skills. Auditory beacons, accessed in a model as a talking tactile map and in the environment by beacons which transmit audio messages to a small receiver carried by the pedestrian, serve to integrate the model representation and the environment, and act as mobility and orientation development tool. This technical approach is assessed using a multi-task analysis of the cognitive maps of people using the system when learning a new route. Although analysis was not conclusive, those who used the system expressed great interest, suggesting that both maps and audio complimented and enhanced each other. This study demonstrates that access to audio beacons in environment and model leads to increased spatial comprehension and confidence about the route and shows the need for a mixture of quantitative and qualitative approaches when assessing cognitive mapping ability.

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Navigation for the visually impaired: Going beyond tactile cartography

 Jacobson, R.D. (1994) Navigation for the visually impaired: Going beyond tactile cartography, Swansea Geographer, 31, 53-59.

Abstract

Wayfinding for the visually handicapped, is made more complex by the loss of their visual sense. In spite  of  this  they  can  hold  spatial  concepts  and  are  often  competent  navigators.  Tactile  maps,  those sensed by touch, have been shown to improve their spatial awareness and mobility. It is however the development of a personal guidance system  (PGS) relying on recently developed technologies that
may  herald  a  break  through  for  navigation  for  the  blind  and  visually  impaired.  It  would  enable  the visually handicapped to move more  freely  and  independently  through  their  environment.  It  would provide  on-line  interactions  with  representations  of  their  environment,  in  audio  or  tactile  form,
providing orientation, location and guidance information, enabling them to plan, monitor and execute navigation  decisions.

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Tuesday, 14 May 2013

Spatial cognition through tactile mapping

 Jacobson, R.D. (1992) Spatial cognition through tactile mapping. Swansea Geographer 29, 79-88.

Abstract
This paper describes an experiment to determine whether a tactile map of the University College of Swansea campus increases the spatial awareness of visually handicapped subjects.
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