Jacobson, R.D. (1998) Navigating maps with little or no sight: A novel audio-tactile approach. Proceedings of Content Visualization and Intermedia Representations. August 15, University of Montreal, Montreal.
This paper first presents a review of the options available for conveying maps and graphics to visually impaired and blind people. A novel audio-tactile methodology is described, and the results from its pilot study reported. Communication of spatial media, such as map, is problematic without sight. Tactile perception is serial rather
than synoptic. By building a working model of the environment that is uses both tactile and auditory feedback, a map is made far more accessible. Results from the pilot study demonstrated simplicity and enjoyment of use of this novel approach which integrates speech, verbal landmarks, earcons and recorded environmental soundto build a small spatial hypermedia system.