Golledge, R.G., Jacobson, R.D., Kitchin, R.M., and Blades, M. (2000) Cognitive maps, spatial abilities, and human wayfinding. Geographical Review of Japan, ser. B: The English journal of the Association of Japanese Geographers, 73 (Ser.B) (2), 93-104.
In a series of experiments in Belfast (Northern Ireland) and Santa Barbara (California) we used 10 sighted, 10 visually impaired, and 10 blind individuals matched for age, socio-economic status, and educational background to examine wayfinding. The participants were first required to take the experimenter over a familiar route to observe the types of behavior they exhibited. This established a performance base and provided a training exercise as participants undertook the set of tasks to be performed in the unfamiliar environment. Table 2 shows the aggregate results from participants' familiar environments. They were then required to learn a new route in completely unfamiliar environments. To do this the participants were given 4 trials - the first was an experimenter-guided trial and the next 3 were learning and evaluation trials.